The Project Pages
This is a list of some of the projects up my sleeve. They are mostly electronic in nature
but will be fleshed out with new stuff as I get the time and get involved with a project
again. A lot of them stand idle and wait for inspiration or time.
If you want more information on any of the projects send me
- LINKS Links to other peoples project pages
- SPVS Serial Port Voice Sampler
- BFG Budget Frame Grabber
- CIRR CHEAP Infra Red Remote Receiver and Transmitter
- BIRC Budget IR communications system
- TIMP Total Isolation computer-Modem Protection system
- VID CCIR Pocket Pattern Generator
- FOM High speed Fibre optic Multiplexor
- LCD 2 Line LCD tester
- PIP Classic PIC 16C84 Programmer
- PHONE Phone line busy indicator
- HEAT The HEAT Parallax Basic STAMP II Temperature sensor
- ENERGY SAMES Energy Metering ICs and Modules
- HPIR HP IR Printer evaluation using PC
Serial Port Voice Sampler
This unit uses a PIC16C71 to sample voice data and feed it in the serial port of
a PC at 115200 bits per second. This allows for the generation of 11 kSamples
of 8 bits for use in a cheap Internet Voice platform that will then use the
horrible PC speaker sound driver to talk to you. Strictly fast computer and
half duplex batch mode.
I still need to put in an amplifier or VOGAD to allow for a direct connection of
a microphone. The unit is serial port powered and fits inside a D25 connector
shell. I also meant to allow changing the sample rate to 8 kSamples
and possibly putting in a simple R-2R resistor DAC to play out to a crystal
earphone from the same unit to avoid the horrible PC speaker driver software.
Very early silicon for the 16C71 has some interrupt problems, beware.
Budget Frame Grabber
The plane here is to make a PC card that could be made for US$50 and would grab
any type of monochrome video. One could then add CU-SeeMe capabilities to the
Internet phone thing. Just waiting for some chips to arrive before I proceed
further. This would give at least 320 x 240 x 6 pixel resolution which is ideal for
remote surveillance and Internet Video.
CHEAP Infra Red Remote Receiver and Transmitter
This is more of a quick hack project but I have not got round to finishing the
software for the devices so it here under ongoing. The transmitter uses just one
resistor and 1 (or more) IR diode connected to a serial port. The receiver uses
just one small cap and a SHARP IS1U60 modulated IR receiver (a tiny transistor sized
moulded plastic (epoxy) device) connected to the GAME port of a PC. The IR receivers
are available from RS Components, UK, not the same as Radio Shack, US.
The set-up will allow for any kind of protocol but I intend to make it talk 4800 BPS
to interface with another project I'm working on. This is a perfectly OK protocol
as there are enough transitions and the one bit pulses are not too narrow.
I would also like to record my box full of IR remotes just for interest and make
it replay them from a console that has the picture of the original remote (grabbed
with the Budget frame grabber) with buttons. Windoze will most likely not
manage the speed.
There is other stuff available from the
IR pages and the data by Anssi Ylätalo in
Budget IR communications system
This is a slightly improved spec device to the CHEAP unit and will transmit and receive
in Windoze at 4800 but will not be suited to control of appliances. It will connect
to the serial port only and use the TX and RX pins to work the data through the UART.
This is intended for my in room control project to monitor computers and modems without
wires to avoid lightning problems. The prevalence of lightning induced damage here
on the Gauteng highveld is the second highest in the world. Some cute middle US
state gets the first prize.
Total Isolation computer-Modem Protection system
Paradyne or Intel made a Fibre connected modem a while ago, I wonder if they still
do. I had a similar idea years ago but balked at all the TELKOM regulations here
with attached devices. I have instead considered making a fibre isolated modem interface
that will fully protect the computer and the modem interface due to a lack of conduction
path through the connecting cable. This won't protect the modem from its power-supply
but this may be replaced with a better isolated transformer to withstand much larger
CCIR Pocket Pattern Generator
This is a classic PIC project. I found out later that there had been
two other Video generator projects that used some other subtle timing methods.
Uses a PIC 16C54-04 but could be made to have an arbitrary graphical picture
such as a company logo if use was made of a 16C58-HS. The available
resolution would be about 9 x 16 with a pretty border.
Mine is a simple checker board full interlaced square aspect pattern. Ideal
for those setting up closed circuit video systems. Currently only
available in 625 line, 50Hz.
High speed Fibre optic Multiplexor
This is a PIC design that makes the poor chip really work hard. It uses just
2 PICs and 4 RS-232 transmitter IC's to achieve a 8 channel plus hardware handshake
with data at 19k2 over fibre with a link speed of 1Mb/s. The sampling rate is kept
as a multiple of 19200 to eliminate almost all of the jitter on the reconstructed signal.
This is baud rate insensitive from 19k2 to DC on the data circuit and 2k4 to DC on the
handshake circuit. The two PICs are 16C55-HS parts running at 20MHz.
2 Line LCD tester
Hitachi Driver 2 line LCD parallel port test set-up. This makes use of the
good old PC printer port (or any other 8 bit interface) in output only mode.
I have used this in 8 bit mode as well as the less wires 4 bit mode. The
set-up can be made with very few parts. Requiring only a display, a 5 volt
supply and a single pot.
My connections for the 4 bit version were as follows.
LPT-Bit LPT-Pin LCD-Pin LCD-Bit
GND 7 D0
GND 8 D1
GND 9 D2
GND 10 D3
D0 2 11 D4
D1 3 12 D5
D2 4 13 D6
D3 5 14 D7
D4 6 4 RS (0=control, 1=data)
D5 7 5 RW (0=write, 1=read) _
D6 8 6 E (positive latch pulse _| v_ )
+5V 2 VDD
GND 18 1 GND
~0.7V 3 Vo
The LCD pin numbering feels strange but the documents and displays I have
seem to all work as follows, I have not connected up any of the
single in-line type displays yet. The dual in line 14 way connections
are (when looking at the display area with the contacts at left) pin one
bottom right and pin 2 bottom left.
| 14 13 +------------------------------+ |
| 12 11 | | |
| 10 9 | LINE 1 | |
| 8 7 | | |
| 6 5 | LINE 2 | |
| 4 3 | | |
| 2 1 +------------------------------+ |
The PASCAL test program was a quick 5 minute hack
but worked fine. The control words are sent in 2 nibbles as I was too
lazy to write a procedure that would send them out automatically to the
control port. The 'Bite' procedure sets the 'data' bit for each nibble.
The RW bit is not required as the printer port will not read in on a regular
PC but would work on a microcontroller.
The display has to be initialised in 8 bit mode and then only placed into the
4 bit mode. Sending the 8 bit mode command 3 times will always reset
the display irrespective of what mode or nibble state it was in previously.
Follow this by the various cursor and display enable commands. If the
display is not correctly enabled you should see all the pixels of line 1 the
same OFF grey, once you initialise the display for 2 line mode the pixels will
become less distinct and the second line will appear, if you enabled a cursor this
will also become visible. You loose some contrast when using the 2 line mode.
The contrast voltage is meaningful around 0-1 volt on most displays, grounding
it will usually give a display of some sort. Some displays require a negative
contrast voltage, notably extended temperature range and 4 line displays (16 contacts)
of around -2.8V.
Don't forget to put delay loops between the writes to the display. Especially
any clear 0x01 or home commands 0x02. A max. delay of 1.64 ms is required for these
and 40 us for all other writes and reads (except the test busy bit which requires
only 1 us). You cannot reliably use the busy polling system for the initialisation/mode
commands unless you reliably reset the display into 8 bit mode as the phasing of the
nibbles may be unknown if the display is still in 4 bit mode even though your
controller has reset and assumes the display also to have reset.
Here is some more LCD information by
Classic PIC 16C84 Programmer
This is an implementation of the classic Serial port C84 programmer. It should take
about 4 hours to do the complete construction and get your first PIC programmed. You
will need a junk box with connectors, sockets, regulators and other bits. The software
is available officially from the Silicon Studio
site or you can get the version I used from
(129kb) as a self extracting ZIP file containing the PIP-02 programmer software the
RS-232 PinAPI driver and the original GIF file of the circuit diagram and a few other
bits. I could not get reliable operation from the circuit as supplied and rather than
try and fine tune anything I supplied a PP3 9V battery connector to supply power to the
VCC regulator and only made use of the RS-232 pin for the control of the MCLR pin.
This worked well and adds little to the complexity. The algorithm for programming is
not compromised even though the VCC is permanently on.
Phone line busy indicator
Quick tech run-down
You can buy Data Access Arangements from
Xecom which will allow you to connect
all sorts of devices correctly to the phone network with type aproval in the USA
and Europe (some models) but they will not tell you if the line has been seized,
for this you need to read on, ring indication and a hook-switch relay is included
in a DAA.
This is a self contained phone line in use indicator that can light up an
LED or Opto isolator. See later for circuit details.
It will also make the LED flash when there is an incoming ring. I am not sure
as I was unable to reproduce it, but the circuit may have latched up after some
torture testing with pulse dialling (which also makes it flash)
and hook flash pulses. The circuit is sensitive to the LED component and 2 in series
does not work, nor does a resistor in parallel. The circuit draws 50 uA with
48 V and it seems to go through the LED, the High bright LED that I used was
actually illuminating sufficiently to be visible at dusk.
I replaced the 51Ohm resistor with a 56Ohm standard value and tried it out with
2 sets of transistors. For the NPNs I used a 2N3439 and for the PNP a 2N5416
with 350V Vcbo in a TO5 devices as an overkill and then also a 2N5551 and 2N5401
150V combination in a TO92. There is also a 300V TO92 pair that I did not try,
the MPSA42 and MPSA92.
A variable power-supply is the best for testing the unit and you just need a 1KOhm
series resistor to pretend to be the telephone exchange (make it at least 1W with
lots of free air cooling) or use the current limit on the PSU to limit the max. current
to 30mA, this is risky as you can toast your phone if you bump the current limit by
accident. Just wire up your normal phone with the sensor in parallel.
The residual 50uA was diverted from the LED to the PNP transistor at the switching
voltage (around 25V) and the LED went out and then came on brightly as the voltage
dropped further (from about 20V).
Phone line sensing
The requirement for detecting the status of a phone line has come up a few times.
I have had various hobby and commercial needs for such a device. There are quite a few
ways to detect the off-hook condition but they all have limitations.
One of the common ways to detect a down-stream phone going off-hook is to detect
an addition or diversion of the loop current usually with an opto-isolator
across a series shunt resistor in the output circuit. This type is most likely to
be used in an answering machine where the machine must shut-up if you rush up to the
phone and pick up when the machine has started its thing. Remember that the loop
current could be either polarity so you have to rectify the signal with a bridge
before or across your shunt or use a AC opto-isolator (CP Clare makes some real hot ones).
Another way is to detect AC activity on the loop or across the line. This will
only indicate if there is some 'sound'. After the first digit has been dialled there
is normally no 'sound' and this could be incorrectly detected as on-hook and would
give a false status. This is a convenient method and is most useful when one already
has an analogue connection to the line for other purposes. Some call progress monitoring
ICs have a no-tone detection facility that will indicate that there is no intelligent
activity (dial-tone, busy &c.) in the frequency band from 300 Hz to 2150 Hz. They
might also false if there was modem activity from 2200 Hz to 3200 Hz which would
The last method that could be used is to measure the line voltage that is available.
This is a pretty reliable method but must be used with caution. It has a DC connection
across the line and as such is more prone to interfering and damage. The telco details
described here relate to South Africa but are similar elsewhere, PABX, party line
and carrier multiplex systems often have VERY different characteristics and one has
to be very careful to not upset the specs and also to get reliable indication. The
on-hook condition of a phone line is nominally 48 V (DC) and the maximum specified
load that you can place across it is 1 MOhm. This is just 52 uA. This is a
conservative spec but the telco could potentially detect a larger drain and come and
visit to 'repair' your installation. The line assert current is a minimum of 25 mA
and usually will be achieved in an instrument by loading the loop with a Zenner
diode and resistor type of load to about 5 to 12 V. However a worst case
load with a short local lead (close to exchange) will supply a legitimate 45 mA
loop current with still 35 V across the instrument. This means that for voltage
type detection you have to work with a maximum of 35 V for off-hook and a minimum of
46 V on-hook. These limits will obviously not work on a PABX with 24 V supply or
a carrier multiplex system with 12 V supply so one tries to compromise. To find a
happy medium one uses a sense voltage closer to 20 V. This method also needs a bridge
rectifier as the line voltage polarity is unknown and may change during routine
This type of circuit is the classic low-battery monitor circuit and can be
implemented in a number of way. One low voltage option is with a 7555 IC
(cute design coming soon) but
is unsuited to phone line voltages. Another is to use one of the application
note circuits from the National semiconductor data-book for the LM10 IC and the
third is the design described here.
The circuit described here is a simple solutions. It makes use of
3 transistors an LED (or opto isolator, or flashing LED with a 5V6 Zenner and 1uF
capacitor in parallel), 4 resistors, a full wave diode bridge and
optional surge protection components. It has a start voltage of about 25 V with the
given component values but could be changed. It has built in current limiting to
avoid the circuit holding the line in the off-hook condition after the instrument
is placed on-hook. It is also robust in as much as it makes use of 'real' components
that can withstand spikes better than CMOS ICs.
The circuit was made available to me after asking about a posting to the
sci.electronics (now sci.electronics.misc) Usenet newsgroup. I am including the
comments made by the poster where he also attributes the source of the original design.
Kindly supplied by Colin Edwards [email@example.com]
> Attached is the circuit for the telephone busy line indicator.
> The only thing of note is that the transistors (Tr1 & Tr3) should have a
> Vcbo of 120V to avoid breakdown on the ringing voltage. I also put a
> resistor and Zenner between the output of the bridge and the circuit.
> Adapted from a circuit by Ron Weinstein. There is no copyright on this
There are two GIF files that were supplied and they print out OK. The first is a
and the second is a slightly cryptic simulation
of the circuit that shows the current drawn by the circuit on the vertical
axis with a peak of about 5 mA vs the voltage across the line on the horizontal
axis with useful values of about 3 V and 24 V when the LED will be illuminated.
The graph axis labels need to be flipped about the X=Y line for it to make any sense.
The current is measured as a voltage across a resistor R5 probably in series with the
(There is also a
with other various ASCII artwork of phone circuits that has become available while
I was writing this. I have not tested any of them but most look OK with a few that may
supply undue loads to the phone line.)
The above link seems to have gone away. I have located a copy of the file with
Stefans site in Holland which has LOADS of electronics information also with
pointers to some very useful sites. The phone circuits file is attributed to
who has a good electronics FAQ on the web but I could not find the phone line stuff
so I have made a local copy
so that I don't loose the info again.
The contents were listed by Kevin Rhoades [krhoades@QUALCOMM.COM] as the following
Telephone in use light
Detecting a telephone RING
(manual) Phone In-Use Light
Phone to audio interface (SSI202 input)
Phone Off-Hook Indicator
'phone rang' indicator light
Phone Line to Audio
Telephone Line Monitor (Plans)
Use old phones as an intercom
Hold function for Telephone
Digital/Standard Phone Line Tester
The HEAT Parallax Basic STAMP II Temperature sensor
A 4 hour development cycle. (3 hours spent cleaning the work bench and doing an
emergency fan swap in a server). Ideal for measuring computer temperatures.
This is a simple code implementation in
Parallax BASIC for the STAMP II to measure
the temperature using an
Analogue Devices integrated temperature sensor.
The sensor is a 3 terminal temperature sensor with a built in slope/delta A/D
converter and reference. The output is supplied as a duty cycle at nominally
45 Hz. Any counter with 1 to 10 us resolution can sense the temperature in
about 25 to 50 ms. You don't need to send any commands (I2C, Dallas 1 Wire) to
the device and it is always ready when you want the data. The STAMP is not
optimised for fast execution so it takes me max. 4 cycles to read the temp. with
more effort you could cut it down to max. 1.5 cycles. Only one pin is required
on the STAMP and no other external hardware for the TMP04 (TMP03 is open collector
output so will require a pull-up resistor). Calculation of the temperature
from the duty-cycle is a simple multiply, divide, subtract but you loose a lot of
resolution if you use 16 bit integer math. Sensor is typically accurate to 1.5°C
and can be calibrated in software to about 0.5°C accuracy with a resolution of
0.3°C easily achieved.
I wrote a short BASIC program to read and calculate
the temperature but was too lazy to wire up the slick HP HEX displays to the
STAMP so instead used the DEBUG feature to get the temp. Calculating the temp
from the count values agrees with the BASIC result to 1 or 2°C. I also heated
the sensor up to 100°C by holding it over a soldering iron, the plastic on my
connector shell was starting to curl a bit. The sensor is rated -40 to 150°C.
Low current consumption (1.5 mA) insensitive to clock variations, unlike V-F
converters. There is a local copy of the
TMP03 data sheet in pdf format exactly as found on the Analogue Devices Web site.
There is also a copy of a PASCAL program that I
wrote (undocumented) that uses a devious method to read the temperature with
a PC. The TMP03 sensor must be connected to a D15 Male connector and plugged into
your joystick port. The power from pin 8, ground on pin 5 and duty-cycle
signal on pin 7. This program just sits and polls the joystick pin and counts up
40000 counts on the one state and then divides it by the number of counts on the
other state giving a very bad approximation of the duty-cycle. If you smooth the
signal over enough samples (about 30 count intervals, moving average works well)
and then write the results to disk every minute you get neat plots of the temperature
when you are not using the computer, my program will not run under windows properly
as the task switching adds too much jitter even when you force the program into
permanent foreground operation (put a weight onto the alt key when you leave the
office). In raw DOS with a 386 DX2-80 you get fair results. You will have to rip
out my time routines that are from the UTIL unit or make your own. They are just
for the time stamping of the data file.
Sames Energy Metering ICs and Modules
The local South African Semiconductor Fab has a limited range of products but
does try and make them as useful as possible. They Second source and develop
a handful of popular telecoms IC's for Phones and exchange trunking. They also
have a range of Energy measurement ICs that I will describe here.
The company is called South African Micro-Electronic Systems or SAMES.
They can be contacted locally at +27 (12) 333-6021 (fax:333-8071) or their US
representative Mr Jerry Mills is at +1 (408) 356-0216 (fax:356-0207). As a
small favour to me if you do call Jerry Mills could you please tell him
where you got his number and ask him to send a memo to his South African counterpart
a Mr Dennis Walden about how you got hold of him. This is a small experiment
on my part on International Internet marketing potential.
They make prototype modules for a few of the metering ICs. The ICs have various
options. Either integrating pulse output that supply one pulse for each energy
unit, or ICs that have internal counters and an asynchronous serial port. They have
single phase and 3 phase units though engineers at SAMES say most customers make use of
3 single phase modules in 3 phase applications. They also do one with a built
in 7 segment Display driver circuit to display the average power over every 2 second
period, this IC will not integrate energy.
Here is a list of the devices, development modules and some capabilities.
The Modules have opto isolators on the pulse and serial outputs and serial inputs.
The protocol to drive the serial ICs is a simple single byte protocol and you get
2 bytes back with the top 16 bits of the counter at the time. You can place the device
into various test and pulse modes (some undocumented) as well as clearing the 22 bit
counter. Unfortunately it is not possible to directly read the low 6 bits of the
counter but one can ignore them if one lets the counter use up most of the 16
more significant bits. One may also poll fast and check that bit 6 changed and then
reset the counter when the low 6 bits had not counted far to minimise the error.
- Single Phase
- Module PMM101B2, Pulse Output
- Module PMM102C4, Serial Interface
- Serial Interface (Like SA9103A but requires 4 less capacitors)
- Module PMM103A1, 5 Digit LED display driver
- 7 Digit LCD display driver, 4 multi tariff registers
- Three Phase
- Serial Interface
- Module PMM104A1, Pulse Output
These devices are rated to Class 1 and they take Power factor into account. They
require +- 2.5V supplies which are derived from the mains in the development modules.
They use a resistor divider to measure voltage and either a shunt resistor or current
transformer to measure line current. Usually the module will float at the line
voltage and have opto isolators to connect it to the micro controller or PC. The LED
display module has a mains transformer and display to let you get a reading without
the use of any other equipment (you still need the shunt). These modules have been
made for 230 V use but all you need to do is change some resistors and the transformer
in the LED Display module.
The module I purchased months ago, the PMM102C4 cost about ZAR 250 which is
about US$ 60. The price of the ICs was in the ZAR 20, US$ 5 range but could
have changed. After having had the module and a suitable shunt in a box for
a while and having offered to make some more information available on the
STAMP list I decided that I had to give it a try-out. I made a very simple
jig with a 100W lamp and a mains receptacle and wired the module, shunt and bits
together. It worked fist time with the supplied PC test software and I was
able to graph the consumption of the lamp and various hand tools without any problems.
These ICs and modules are used in great quantities in household prepayment metering
systems as well as substation monitoring and probably many other places I don't
know of. I purchased the module on spec for a Generator Leasing Company that was
going to tender on temporary township electrification but the project got bogged down
with politics and I never got around to doing the testing on the metering part of
I can recommend these modules if you have a design that is not too cost sensitive
and can take the 70 x 80 mm modules, saves a lot of development and the readings
are accurate enough for charging people.
The company LEM U.S.A. Inc have a series of hall effect current transducers that are
suitable for some power measurement systems.
They have at least 2 ranges of products :
The LEM HY series (which were advertised in a Pacific Rim trade journal in
December 1995) which have 500 MOhm isolation at 500VDC, include devices in the
5A to 20A ranges, require +-15 V, can measure AC, DC and pulse currents and
an output of +-4V with 10mA source current for full scale at a power consumption
of 25mA. Accuracy is rated at +-1% over an operating range of -10 to 75 degC and
wheighing in at 8g with easy fitting to PCB with single inline pins (4 small and 2
The other type is described on a NASA page for use in the spacestation (I guess)
and is in the LA series.
The following extracted from the
The LA25-NP has the following salient characteristics:
Measures bidirectional currents up to 25 A rms from DC to 150kHz.
Closed loop Hall effect design (proportional current)
Circuit board mountable, selectable current ranges.
Supply voltage of +/- 15 Vdc, 35mA (max).
Galvanic isolation to 2500 V, 50Hz, 1 min.
Dimensions 26mm x 29mm x 16mm, 22 grams.
The closed loop design of the LEM LA25-NP provides excellent signal level and
consumes very little power.
Their US number is 1-800-236-5366 and they are in Milwaukee, WI.
Some of the LEM parts are available via the UK based RS Components mail order-house
which will be the easiest way of prototyping. Look under Sensors/Transducers -
Hall Effect Devices - Current Transducers.
Hewlett Packard Thermal Paper IR link printer evaluation.
Last year I had occasion to try out the capabilities of the HP 82240B portable
Nice things about it are it has an IR interface, uses no ribbon, runs on internal
batteries and has graphical capabilities.
Problems with it include the cryptic IR protocol the thermal paper and
the limited running time with batteries.
I decided to try out the printer using a software generated IR signal that
would drive just one output pin on the parallel printer port of a PC (could be a
serial port pin just as easily) to see what the timing and protocol overheads were.
As it happens the protocol is not too hard in a high level language with
brute force but the timing of a 32 kHz carrier for the IR link is a bit beyond the
speed that my PC (i486DX2/80) could cope with reliably. Running the program
in a DOS box under windows was no option. If the critical carrier burst
generation were to be done in assembler with proper use of the PC timer
the program would most likely work perfectly but that was not the way I was
planning to go. Trick was to find out how the protocol worked and then
code it into a PIC to allow for driving the printer with a serial port that
would interface power a PIC and the IR LED. Basically a smart cable.
The protocol is nothing like ASYNC NRZ data that one sees on a normal RS-232
interface for a few reasons. This is not suited for IR links as the on times may
get too long and start to saturate the receiver which then causes dropouts.
This is why almost all IR signals are pulsed carrier bursts. The carrier
was 32 kHz according to the two info sources I used (one had used the other
from what I could tell) which is at the low end of the consumer IR range.
The characters are made up of a start sentinel and then some error correction
bits and the byte itself. The error correction bits actually allow the
printer to repair single bit errors and detect all 2 bit and most 3 bit errors.
Errors are printed as a Solid Block so the quality of the signal is obvious
when you look at the output.
I wrote the program to print text and graphics to the HP printer in Turbo
PASCAL and this program can be found here. and the
one net info reference can be found here. With these two
references you can make it work but the third point of view from the CCI article
is useful for
understanding what is going on with some of the protocol stuff. You will also need to
consult your printers manual if you want to understand the graphics control codes.
Recently Victor posted a protocol specification that I have archived
here. This document cannot be official HP as
there is a serious ommision error in the generation of the pulses. The LRC bit generation
may very well be correct but I have not tried to check.
I am writing this up now because there is talk on the PICList again about this
topic and it has been 3 months since I stopped playing with this project.
Thanks Gary Norman Dion who supplied me with the pointer to the Circuit
Cellar Inc. article.
Other peoples project pages
- Many can be found on my dedicated
PIC Micro Zone Including MANY PIC sites
- Other non PIC project pages to be listed here sometime soon
How to reach me
Use any of the following means.
Comments, suggestions and submissions welcome.
- Internet electronic mail
- CCITT Group 3 facsimile
- +27 (11) 402-7751
- Regular post
- P O Box 15775
2028 South Africa
Produced by me.
Last changed on 12 January 1997.